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The Golden Verses Of The Stoic

Seneca and Epictetus refer to the Golden Verses of Pythagoras , which happens to provide a good framework for developing a daily routine, bookended by morning and evening contemplative practices. Zeno of Citium , who founded Stoicism in 301 BC, expressed his doctrines in notoriously terse arguments and concise maxims.  However, Chrysippus, the third head of the Stoic school, wrote over 700 books fleshing these ideas out and adding complex arguments to support them. 

Think you are right? You're sure about that?

We want to believe that our ideology and our political decisions, as well as our religious feeling are based on good reasoning, logical thinking and possess a sound factual foundation. The problem is we think too much. Or rather... we don't.

Most of our decisions -- nearly 70% -- are based on nothing more than the bio/chemical makeup of our minds -- no more based on evidence or facts than the migration of birds or the bowel movements of monkeys.

Spiritual beliefs, thoughts on gun control, your position on Climate Change, Republican, Democrat, independent, for or against the death penalty, feelings about equality, feminism, bans on smoking, whether the dress is blue or white -- all of these are chemical induced biases which if not countered with serious research into the facts of the issue at hand, are just delusional biases that become more determined and unwilling to accept alternative positions as the years pass.


Candidates, voters, and political scientists alike resist the idea. But we’ve had solid indications for a while now that our ideological biases are based, in large part, on the biology of our brains.

As we noted two years ago, research has found the brains of conservatives are structured in such a way that, compared to liberals, they are more prone to feelings of disgust. This leads to less-accepting attitudes on issues ranging from gay marriage to illegal immigration, which to right-wingers conjures up vague but palpable fears of contamination.

Of course, we’d like to think we came to our core beliefs through a process of rational reflection and discussion—or, at the very least, as a psychological reaction to the influence of our parents and peers.

But the profound influence of basic brain biology has just been re-affirmed in a new research paper, which found liberals and conservatives can be easily identified through fMRI scans.

While the intensity of our reaction may not reach conscious awareness, it influences the way we think about issues, and compels us to adopt certain policy positions.

“Remarkably,” writes a team led by P. Read Montague of the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, “brain responses to a single disgusting stimulus were sufficient to make accurate predictions about an individual subject’s political ideology.”
Writing in the journal Current Biology, the researchers describe a study in which 83 volunteers viewed a series of images while their brains were being scanned. Chosen for their ability to evoke emotional responses, the images were, in turn, disgusting, threatening, pleasant, and neutral.
Having a strong feeling on an issue doesn't make it right -- as the song says, Just cause you feel it, doesn't mean it's there --  in fact, in light of this research and their findings, it makes bigotry and similar ideologies, such as extreme religious views even less acceptable in a free society

further Reading:
Brian W. Haas, Alexandra Ishak, Ian W. Anderson, Megan M. Filkowski. (2015) The tendency to trust is reflected in human brain structure. NeuroImage 107175-181.
Online publication date: 1-Feb-2015.
CrossRef 

Scott Clifford, Vijeth Iyengar, Roberto Cabeza, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong. (2015) Moral foundations vignettes: a standardized stimulus database of scenarios based on moral foundations theory. Behavior Research Methods.
Online publication date: 13-Jan-2015.
CrossRef 

Wouter Boekel, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Luam Belay, Josine Verhagen, Scott Brown, Birte U. Forstmann. (2015) A purely confirmatory replication study of structural brain-behavior correlations. Cortex.
Online publication date: 1-Jan-2015.
CrossRef 

G.J. Lewis, M.S. Panizzon, L. Eyler, C. Fennema-Notestine, C.-H. Chen, M.C. Neale, T.L. Jernigan, M.J. Lyons, A.M. Dale, W.S. Kremen, C.E. Franz. (2014) Heritable influences on amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex contribute to genetic variation in core dimensions of personality. NeuroImage.
Online publication date: 1-Sep-2014.
CrossRef 

Alexandra A. de Sousa, Michael J. Proulx. (2014) What can volumes reveal about human brain evolution? A framework for bridging behavioral, histometric, and volumetric perspectives. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 8.
Online publication date: 25-Jun-2014.
CrossRef 

G. J. Lewis, R. Kanai, G. Rees, T. C. Bates. (2014) Neural correlates of the 'good life': eudaimonic well-being is associated with insular cortex volume. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9615-618.
Online publication date: 1-May-2014.
CrossRef 

Jenny Gu, Ryota Kanai. (2014) What contributes to individual differences in brain structure?. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
Online publication date: 28-Apr-2014.
CrossRef 

Jesse Graham, Jonathan Haidt, Sena Koleva, Matt Motyl, Ravi Iyer, Sean P. Wojcik, Peter H. Ditto. 2013. Moral Foundations Theory. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology55-130.
CrossRef

Afterwards, participants reported their response to each image, and filled out a questionnaire on their political affiliation, ideology, and positions on hot-button issues including gun control and immigration.

Liberals, conservatives, and moderates “did not significantly differ in subjective ratings of disgusting, threatening, or pleasant pictures,” the researchers report, “except that the conservative group had marginally higher disgust sensitivity than the liberal group.”

The brain scans, however, told a different story. Researchers “reliably differentiated the conservative and liberal groups” by observing how the distinctive ways their brains responded to images that evoked disgust—particularly ones that served as reminders of our animal nature, such as images of mutilated bodies.

“A single disgusting image was sufficient to predict each subject’s political orientation,” Montague told Cell Press. “I haven’t seen such clean predictive results in any other functional imaging experiments in our lab or others.”

So while the intensity of our reaction may not reach conscious awareness, it influences the way we think about issues, and compels us to adopt certain policy positions. As psychologist Jonathan Haidt noted in 2012, “When you’re disgusted by something—say, deviant sex of some sort—you tend to come up with reasons why it’s wrong.”

At least theoretically, these results could help lower the temperature of our political squabbles. If we could do away with the idea that “You’re an idiot for thinking that way” and replace it with “Your brain simply processes things differently than mine,” it would make it harder to demonize those on the other side.

But that would require giving some thought to how our ideological leanings arise, and letting go of the mindset that insists we’re right because we know we’re right.