What is Orthography?

Orthography is the set of conventions for writing a language, including norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word boundaries, emphasis, and punctuation. It is a complex system that is influenced by a variety of factors, including the history of the language, the sound system of the language, and the conventions of writing that are used in the region where the language is spoken.

There are many different orthographies in the world, each with its own unique features. Some orthographies are very regular, while others are more irregular. Some orthographies are based on the sound system of the language, while others are more arbitrary.

The Sense of Entitlement Held by Narcissists

Entitlement is a major warning sign of psychosis in anyone. Especially for the Narcissus. 

They believe that they are superior to others and deserve special treatment. They also believe that others are obligated to meet their needs and provide them with support.

This sense of entitlement can manifest itself in a number of ways. Narcissists may demand that others give them their undivided attention, or they may expect others to do things for them without being asked. They may also be quick to anger or take offense when their needs are not met.

The belief that others are indentured to their needs can also lead narcissists to take advantage of others. They may exploit others for their money, time, or resources. They may also lie, cheat, or manipulate others in order to get what they want.


The sense of entitlement that narcissists have can be very destructive. It can damage their relationships, their careers, and their personal lives. If you are dealing with a narcissistic person, it is important to set boundaries and to refuse to give in to their demands. You may also want to consider seeking professional help.


Here are some additional signs of narcissistic entitlement:

  • Expecting to be treated like royalty, even by people who are not their subordinates
  • Feeling that they are owed special favors or privileges
  • Becoming angry or resentful when their expectations are not met
  • Expecting others to put their needs first, even at the expense of their own
  • Feeling that they are better than others and deserve to be treated differently
  • Taking credit for other people's work
  • Blaming others for their own mistakes
  • Feeling entitled to special treatment, even when they have not earned it


If you see these signs in someone you know, it is possible that they have a narcissistic personality disorder. This is a serious mental illness that can cause significant problems in relationships, work, and other areas of life.

The Trappings and Suits of Woe

Let's get into the Objective Correlative
¯\_(ツ)_/¯

I believe the Objective Correlative is likely my big gun. As a plot device for deepening emotions and building senses of atmosphere -- opening the reader up to immersion, it has no peer. 

The term sounds more complex than it actually is: ‘objective’ in this sense, means universally applicable or relatable, while ‘correlative’ simply denotes ‘something with correlates’ or, if you prefer, something that corresponds. And it plays well with other Rhetoric Devices.

Bob, our MC is going through his morning. His body language and voice and words are active, up, and focused on possibilities. But inside, he's coming apart because his wife is sleeping with a Civil Servant. We want to convey this to the reader, without saying. "Bob is dying inside." We want to show not tell. 

we have stopped talking

I fear that we have stopped talking. What I mean is, no one is talking any longer. And as the immortal words lilted from the radios of old, ‘nobody’s right, if everybody’s is wrong’ — for what it’s worth.

Just a couple of hours ago I was flipping through shorts on YouTube, looking for things that might be Huge, if true or funny cat videos or maybe a grizz eating popcorn in bed, when I was slammed by a short claim that an Oregon Woman Denied Cancer Treatment For Criticizing LGBT Flag — that was the title. The message came across enthusiastically harsher.

With a voice brittle enough to cause me concerns about exploding teeth, the story was blurted out and then the short vid was over. Stunned I sat for a long moment. It didn’t make any sense, really. We don’t even do that with the national flag. The stars and stripes. Why would the rainbow be flirting with manslaughter? This being a volatile story, I first decided to confirm that someone other than a content producer on YouTube knew about this story.

That didn’t take long. Both Newsweek and the Oregon News had features on the event. The stories bounced out of the monitor strong enough to nearly trip on the one while almost breaking my ankle on the other. Eager. That’s what those stories were, eager to be out and prancing. 

From the Oregon news article: “Richmond employees have endured countless threats of harm, racial slurs, anti-LGBTQIA+ hate speech and more, with little to no recourse,” wrote Michael Stewart, president of the union Oregon AFSCME, in an email to the thousands of OHSU workers it represents. “As one person put it, ‘Richmond staff have been sharing that they’re worried something like this would happen for a long time now, and now their fears and suspicions have been confirmed.’”

From the Newsweek article: The LGBTQ+ community has become a culture war battleground in the United States with a record number of anti-LGBTQ+ bills introduced in state legislatures this year. Attacks against members of the LGBTQ+ community are also on the rise. There were over 350 cases of vandalism, assault and harassment against members of the LGBTQ+ community from June 2022 to April 2023, according to a report from the Anti-Defamation League and the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD).


But wait, there’s more. 

I also discovered that: South Carolina became the seventh state last month to pass laws that permit health care providers to decline to serve people if they feel doing so would violate their religious beliefs.

As a result, more than 1 in 8 LGBTQ people now live in states where doctors, nurses and other health care professionals can legally refuse to treat them, according to the Movement Advancement Project, an LGBTQ think tank. In addition to South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas, Tennessee, Ohio and Illinois have similar measures in effect.
…this from NBC news. 

But again, no one is talking. They are embattled. 

My first question was to wonder if the LGBTQ+ flag had been taken down? Why? Well, why is it up? It is a hospital. A culturally and historically safe, neutral ground which even curbs their enthusiasm with religious idols decorating the halls. In San Diego, I remember Mercy Hospital in Hillcrest, a Catholic owned and operated facility, use to have crosses on every patient room wall. They stopped that a long time ago. Their purpose, was to heal — like Christ and all that. First thing Jesus did was heal lepers. Just went out there touching lepers. At that time, doing that was a stoning offense, because of the risk you would bring to your neighbors. But he did it. Healing was more important than being offended. 

Does the flag heal? Does it belong in a neutral safe place where all come for relief? Is there any other flags hanging around?

Of course this doesn’t speak well for the eight states and their religions too. 

All of this over the possibility of being offended — when no one has that right. Not even old white men. You do not have the right to not be offended. Anywhere. Not even in your home — though you have more means to defend at home. And such a law could not be enforced, legally. Not with the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press and the freedom of religion on the books. You would have to give at least two of those up to protect from being offended. The Bill of Rights is a legal document which guarantees you will be offended. Daily. 

There are societies which have and protect that right. Modern ones, which are alive and functioning today. One is called ISIS. 

The state actions remind me of the Sharia Law flurry that occurred a few years ago. Suddenly there was fear and trepidation that the Muslim traditional religious laws, known as Sharia, were going to some how superseded the US Government laws:

Arizona, Kansas, Louisiana, South Dakota, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Alabama have "banned sharia,"i.e., passed foreign law bans. In 2010 and 2011, more than two dozen states "considered measures to restrict judges from consulting Shariah, or foreign and religious laws more generally".

Which for me, caused much mirth and humor. Because in order for those laws to be legal, they had to be against all foreign laws and systems, not just the Sharia laws. Well, the Bible was not written in the United States, I don’t care how white they make Jesus. 

None of these actions concern me much. They are for the most part, inevitable. But we have stopped talking. Finding exception and insult is supersedes finding solutions and ways.

Something that does bug me, is the knavery of some of the messages. The story about the southern states and their new Religious Protection laws.  The way it is written, and it is written carefully, no one has actually been affected by the laws at all — and I personally doubt many will — since most doctors actually believe in the oath they took. But the stories are written to imply thousands are being tossed into the streets and dumped from wheelchairs and room windows. 

If we want to be treated with respect, we must first be respectable. Respect is not a right. Respect is a gift.



Why Can't I Finish Writing This Book?


Almost done with the novel, and yet blank and staring an empty document. Writers Block descends. 

We do not grow absolutely or chronologically or all of us growing all at once. We grow sometimes in one dimension, and not in another; unevenly. We grow partially. We are relative. We are mature in one realm, childish in another. The past, present, and future mingle and pull us backward, forward, or fix us in the present. We are made up of layers, cells, and constellations. Our writing grows like we do.

I don't know what causes this but I know it is common, and many writers have worked past it. It could be as you say, it could be that you don't want to end the journey with the characters. That's happened to me more than once. I just didn't want to say THE END, and close it up. Be that as it may, here are some ideas I've discovered over the last couple of decades. I hope you find something that helps. 

After learning these three techs I haven't had writers block for more than 22 years.

1. Skip it. -- if the scene you are working on isn't flashing up into the visual cortex --  skip it and jump to the next scene, or another chapter altogether. This is one of the reasons I love Scrivener. It allows this kind of jumping with no effort at all, and allows the creation of notes and tags to keep track of your thoughts as you flip back and forth through versions and chapters. So, open up a new document, pick a scene that is in the future that you know needs to happen and begin. 

As you are writing, what needs to happen back at the spot you got stuck at will start to be filled in. As you MC does something -- that action will depend on actions happening prior to you jump. Most of the time this is called inference, this deriving what something is because of what something else is. 

2. Jump Start -- take out a book from an author you really love. Someone whose prose engulfs you. You can feel the words across your cheeks.  Open the book to a random page somewhere in the middle and then type/copy three full pages. Don't stop no matter what ideas come flashing up in your mind. Your Muse had her chance, now she can wait.  

Once you are finished, get up, get something to drink, clear your mind and sit back down. Start typing whatever comes to mind, whether it is in-line with the current scene or not. Very soon, within a paragraph, you'll know what needs to be written. Erase what you started with, and continue with the scene.


3. Write what Isn't - I got this idea from the folks at Pixar. An amazingly creative bunch they have over there. One of the head editors Tweeted 22 tips for building  creative stories. This comes from #9, of that list, and it is great for breaking up blocks.

Tweet:*** Story basics #9: When you're stuck, make a list of what WOULDN'T happen next. Lots of times the material to get you unstuck will show up.
— Emma Coats (@lawnrocket) March 29, 2011

If the scene isn't flashing, then start writing what would definitely not be happening in this scene. For example,  your MC is standing on the front lawn of a great estate, trying to come to grips with what "He" said -- suddenly your mind goes blank -- because this is suppose to be a profound emotional moment and you can't seem to find the right direction or words to convey the depth of what the MC is going through. Your muse has left the room... start typing what would definitely not be happening
        ***
She gazed into the starlight... but a distant thumping sound some where over the trees to the South distracted her. The  thumping grew louder, and more distinct. The helicopters -- three of them -- brushed the tree tops as they came in fast and hard, landing on the grass lawns, their side doors sliding open just as the rails touched the ground,  and a rush of clowns leaped onto the grass with automatic weapons in hand. The thought to duck exploded into her mind but her body was already hurtling itself into the grass.... 
        ***
In no time at all your Muse will come rushing into the room screaming "No, no no no no! Clowns?! You went to Clowns?!"

works every time... good luck and remember, this is the fun part. 

Dance of the Dead, by Goethe

The poem  Dance of the Dead, by Goethe  is a chilling and vivid depiction of a supernatural dance of the dead, an eerie scene where the dead...